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Antony Blinken: Amazi ntakiri ya yandi mu Karere k’Ibiyaga Bigari

Yanditswe na Marc Hoogsteyns
Kuya 6 Kanama 2022 saa 03:25
Yasuwe :

Mu cyumweru gitaha Umunyamabanga wa Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika Ushinzwe Ububanyi n’Amahanga, Antony Blinken, azasura u Rwanda na Congo. Ni mu gihe umwuka mubi mu karere ukomeje kuzamuka aho hari intambara ikomeje hagati ya M23 n’Ingabo za Congo, Ingabo za Loni, MONUSCO, zikomeje kurwana intambara yo kuzamagana ko ntacyo zakoze gifatika mu guhangana n’ibi bibazo.

Hari kandi ibirego ku Rwanda by’uko rwagushije mu mutego intwari y’i Hollywood, Paul Rusesabagina, rukamukatira igifungo cy’imyaka 25 muri gereza, muri make uru rugendo rubayeho mu gihe cy’ingenzi.

Mu minsi ibiri ishize, abagize itsinda ry’abashakashatsi ba Loni babwiye bagenzi banjye ba Reuters banabereka icyiswe ibimenyetso by’uko Ingabo z’u Rwanda zifatanya na M23 mu Majyaruguru ya Goma.

Aya makuru yabanjirijwe n’inyandiko ya Human Rights Watch, aho u Rwanda rwashinjwaga gufasha M23. Abakurikirana ibya Congo, basanga azazanwa muri aka karere no gutunga intoki u Rwanda. Ibi bishobora gufasha gukemura ikibazo mu mezi make ariko nticyakemuka by’igihe kirekire.

Nta n’umwe ufite ukuri kuri iki kibazo ariko twiyumvisha ko Amerika by’umwihariko guverinoma yayo badafite amakuru ahagije kuri iki kibazo cy’urusobe.

Nukirebera mu madarubindi y’izuba yaguriwe muri Sunset Boulevard ya Hollywood, ukamira bunguri ibyavuye mu bushakashatsi bw’itsinda rya Loni ndetse n’Umuryango nka HRW, by’umwihariko ukumva itsinda rito ry’abadipolomate b’abanyamahanga n’abashinzwe iby’ingabo bari i Kinshasa, ntacyo bizafasha.

U Rwanda ni umufatanyabikorwa w’ingenzi wa Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika muri aka karere. Amerika iri mu ntambara zo kurwanya abahezanguni b’abayisilamu mu bihugu bya Afurika, mu bindi bihugu kuri uyu mugabane batanga umusanzu mu kurwanya ko umutwe w’Abarusiya (Wagner) wagira ijambo riyoboye kuri uyu mugabane.

Ikirenze ibyo ni uko ibitekerezo byayo ku biba mu Rwanda na RDC bigomba kugira agaciro kabyo. Ugomba kugendera ku magi igihe wasuye aka karere, Bwana Blinken. Turagerageza kandi kuguha urutonde rw’inzitizi ugomba kurenga kugira ngo uzasubire muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika wemye.

Guverinoma yawe ivuga ko guta muri yombi no kuburanisha Paul Rusesabagina bibogamye, bitanyuze mu mucyo. Birasa no kugira ikibazo ku buryo intwari ya Hollywood yatawe mu mutego ikisanga yagarutse mu Rwanda ifite ikirahuri cya champagne igahita itabwa muri yombi ikihagera.

Mbere yaho Rusesabagina yari yagiye ku mbuga nkoranyambaga yivugira ashize amanga ko ari umuyobozi wa FLN yashagaka guhirika Perezida Kagame ku butegetsi binyuze mu nzira y’intambara.

Uyu mutwe washinzwe ku bufatanye bw’indi mitwe nka FDLR, icyiswe P5 (indi mitwe itavuga rumwe n’ubutegetsi). FDLR ni umutwe w’iterabwoba kandi ibi byanemejwe n’ubutegetsi bwanyu. Rusesabagina yakoreraga ibi bikorwa i Texas ku butaka bwa Amerika. Polisi y’u Bubiligi yahaye ibimenyetso ubuyobozi bw’u Rwanda.

Inzego zanyu z’umutekano zari zibizi neza ariko zemera ko ibi byose bibaho. Muri icyo gihe FLN ya Rusesabagina yatangiye kwica abantu b’inzirakarengane mu majyepfo y’u Rwanda kandi byarasobanutse ko uyu mutwe wagize uruhare rw’ingenzi mu mugambi wo gushaka guhindura ubutegetsi i Kigali.

Biragoye kugereranya ibikorwa bya Rusesabagina n’ibya Osama Bin Laden ariko ubuyobozi bw’u Rwanda bwafashe icyemezo cyo gukumira ko ibikorwa bye byakomeza kwangiza byinshi. Bamuteze umutego akatirwa gufungwa hamwe na bagenzi be barenga 20.

Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yamaze gutanga itangazo ry’uko nimuva mu Rwanda Rusesabagina azaguma aho ari. Abandi batekereza ko ugomba mbere na mbere kuganira n’abagizweho ingaruka n’ibitero bya FLN mbere yo kugira icyo utangaza kuri iki kibazo.

Niba ushaka guhanira igihugu ibingibi (kutagirira impuhwe Rusesabagina), Abanyarwanda bazabyemera ariko ntabwo bazahindura icyemezo cyabo.

Ikindi kibazo gikomeye Blinken agomba gukemura mu ruzinduko rwe ni uburyo muri Kivu y’Amajyaruguru M23 iri mu ntambara yeruye n’ingabo za Congo, aho buri munsi yigarurira uduce. Abenshi barimo Loni, HRW na guverinoma ya Congo ubwayo bashinja u Rwanda kugira uruhare kuri uyu mutwe.

Mu by’ukuri, indi mitwe irenga 100 iri muri iki gice cya Repubuliaka Iharanira Demokarasi Congo ndetse n’umutwe wa kiyisilamu ADF-Nalu n’undi mutwe wiyita CODECO ikora ibikorwa bibi cyane.

Ikindi gitera umutekano muke ni FARDC (ingabo za Congo) ubwazo. Ni kenshi byagiye byemezwa bigatangirwa n’ibimenyetso ko intwaro nyinshi zikoreshwa n’aba barwanyi zituruka muri FARDC ku bw’ibyo n’ibikorwa byo guhonyora uburenganzira bwa muntu bikorwa n’iyo mitwe bikwiye kujya ku mutwe wa FARDC.

Raporo iheruka yagaragaje ko M23 ari wo mutwe ukora ibikorwa by’ihohoterwa bike muri aka gace. Ku rundi ruhande ariko ni yo ihanzwe amaso. Akarere kagize indi mitwe ibiri y’abatutsi mu bihe byahise, uwa mbere wari uyobowe na Laurent Nkunda, uwa kabiri wari uyobowe n’uwahoze ari ofisiye mu gisirikare cy’u Rwanda, Sultani Makenga.

Aba bombi ni abanye-Congo b’abatutsi bafashe intwaro ngo barinde imiryango yabo n’ibyabo nyuma y’uko bigiye mu maboko y’abahezanguni b’abahutu b’Abanyarwanda bashyizwe ku ibere n’abanyapolitiki n’abaperezida ba Congo ngo babarwanirire.

Guverinoma y’u Rwanda yashinjwe gufasha iyo mitwe. Ni ukuri icyo gihe uruhare rw’u Rwanda rwari rurimo cyane. Impamvu ikomeye yatumye u Rwanda rubikora byari ukwirinda ko FDLR yatera u Rwanda. Kubera igitutu cy’amahanga, Kigali yashyize iherezo ku bufasha yahaga Makenga na Nkunda.

Mu 2013 Makenga yavuye muri Uganda aho we n’abasirikare be bari mu nkambi. Basinyanye amasezerano na leta ya Congo yo gusubizwa mu gisirikare cya FARDC, bizezwa ko bene wabo bari mu nkambi mu Rwanda bashobora gutahuka mu gihugu cyabo mu Burasirazuba bwa Congo.

Aya masezerano ariko ntabwo yubahirijwe bituma M23 isubira muri Congo aho yafashe ibirindiro mu bice by’ibirunga aho bigoye kugaba ibitero. Aho niho batangiye kujya bagaba udutero shuma two kwibutsa guverinoma ya Congo ibyo basezeranye. Ibyo ariko nabyo byarananiranye. Uyu munsi Kinshasa yatangiye guha M23 izina ry’umutwe w’iterabwoba ndetse yanga kuganira nayo.

U Rwanda rukomeje gushinjwa gushyigikira inyeshyamba za M23 ziri mu ntambara na FARDC

Abandi bamaze imyaka myinshi babonye ubwenegihugu bw’u Rwanda ariko baracyiyumva nk’abanye-Congo. Abofisiye bamwe bo muri M23 batangiriye umwuga w’igisirikare mu ngabo z’u Rwanda, barwana izindi ntambara muri Congo birangira bari mu barwanyi ba Laurent Nkunda cyangwa ba Sultan Makenga.

Abajya muri iki gisirikare biroroshye kubabona mu nkambi zo mu Rwanda na Uganda. Impamvu yatumye M23 ibasha kwisuganya no kugira ingufu, ni imikoranire y’abanya-Uganda binjiye mu bufatanye n’umutwe wa FDLR igihe bari bafitanye ibibazo n’u Rwanda.

Ubwo u Rwanda na Uganda basubizaga umubano ku murongo, ubu bufasha bwarahagaze ariko M23 n’abandi batutsi muri Congo biba ngombwa ko bakomeza kwirwanaho.

Bateye ibirindiro bya FARDC basahura intwaro zabafashije kugaba ibitero byinshi. Kubara iyi nkuru mu ngingo zayo zose biragoye kandi ntibyoroshye kuyumva utayirimo. Ariko igitera ibyo tubona uyu munsi, ni uko FARDC ntaho ihuriye na M23 irwana ifite impamvu, iterwa akanyabugabo n’abatutsi bose bo muri Congo, u Rwanda n’u Burundi.

Imwe mu miryango y’abatutsi bo muri Congo yari ifite abana mu gisirikare cya RDF (igisirikare cy’u Rwanda), abandi muri M23. Abandi basubijwe mu buzima busanzwe nyuma y’imyaka itanu bari muri RDF bahita bajya ako kanya muri M23 kurwanya FARDC na FDLR. Kuba ari Abanye-Congo b’Abatutsi, iyi niyo mpamvu nyamukuru bakorera.

Icyo Umuryango Mpuzamahanga wananiwe kumva ni uburyo u Rwanda rwakomeje kubahiriza amasezerano kuva mu ntangiriro z’umwaka wa 1994 kugeza uyu munsi.

Abajenosideri bakomeye bahungiye muri Repubulika Iharanira Demokarasi ya Congo n’u Burayi batangiye kwisuganya ubwabo. Gukorana n’intagondwa z’Abahutu muri RDC n’u Burundi na byo byarakomeje. Icyari kigamijwe ni ugushora u Rwanda mu ntambara ikomeye kandi yeruye muri RDC cyangwa mu Burundi.

Abarwanyi ba FLN ya Rusesabagina bagombaga kugira uruhare rukomeye muri ibyo byose. Nk’umuntu wari ikirangirire byagaragaraga ko yabikora neza ariko na none yagaragaje intege nke. Abamushoye bamwumvisha ko azahita aba Perezida mushya w’u Rwanda ariko ubu ni nk’umu-martyr muri gereza.

Kuri ibyo wakongeraho ibyo kutizerana bikomeje hagati ya Uganda n’u Rwanda; kuba u Rwanda rutera imbere mu bukungu ku muvuduko uhamye bigatera ishyari ryinshi.

Kuba imikorere mishya y’u Rwanda na yo yarabaye intangarugero ku bindi bihugu bya Afurika byatangiye kwiyambaza Kagame ngo ashyire ku murongo ibihugu byabo na byo ntibyakiriwe neza n’ibihugu by’ibihangange ku isi. Ibyo byiyongeraho ko Kagame yari azwiho kubwira ibi bihugu bikomeye kureka kumushyiraho igitutu ngo akore ibyo atemera. U Rwanda ntirushobora kuba urugero rwa demokarasi nyafurika igwa ku nyota y’ibihugu by’ibihangange, ihinduka ikajya mu murongo wabyo igihe bibishakiye.

Imiterere y’iby’uburenganzira bwa muntu mu Rwanda ni myiza ugereranyije n’uko bimeze mu bihugu bihana imbibi na rwo ariko iki gihugu gikomeje kwibasirwa b’imiryango nka Human Rights Watch n’udutsiko twa opozisiyo mu mahanga tugerageza gusibanganya ibyo twakoze muri Jenoside, ubu tukaba twihisha inyuma y’amahame mashya nka demokarasi n’iyubahirizwa ry’amahame y’uburenganzira bwa muntu.

Ni nabo bigishije Abanye-Congo uburyo bashinja Abatutsi amakosa n’ibibi byose bibera mu gihugu cyabo kenshi bagerageza guhisha ibyaha byabo, ruswa n’ubushobozi buke bwo kwikemurira ibibazo.

Abanyepolitiki b’Abanye-Congo nibo ba mbere mu kurwanisha ubwoba kurusha abandi abo ari bo bose bifashishije guhembera urwango no kwigarurira imitima y’ababumva.

Icyo twavuga ku ruhare rw’ingabo z’u Rwanda muri Kivu y’Amajyaruguru ni uko zitigeze zinjirayo. Mu gihe FDLR n’indi mitwe y’intagondwa z’Abahutu ikomeje kugaragaza ko ishobora guhungabanya umutekano w’u Rwanda, dutekereza ko atari ibisanzwe kuba RDF yakwitegura guhangana n’ibitero byaturuka muri Congo.By’umwihariko kuri ubu FDLR yabaye bamwe mu bagize ingabo z’igihugu cya Congo kandi nta n’umwe ubyamagana mu buryo bweruye.

RDF ifite umubare munini w’abasirikare ku ruhande rwayo ku mupaka ndetse ishobora kurangiza intambara muri Congo mu gihe gito iramutse yemerewe kubigiramo uruhare ariko mu by’ukuri ntibabikozwa. Ni yo mpamvu ari ingenzi gusesengura ibyo Loni yashingiyeho isohora raporo zayo za vuba aha.

Ni ibyigaragaza ko isura ya Loni yangiritse mu myigaragambyo yo kwamagana Monusco iherutse kuba. Ese yaba ari yo mpamvu y’ibi birego bishya?

Abanyepolitiki i Kinshasa bakomye amashyi kubera ibyo birego bishya. Muri ibyo birego abayobozi ba Loni bemeje ko ibitero bya M23 ari byo byakuruye ibindi bibazo byose byakurikiyeho ariko kurenga iryo sanisha no gushingira ku ibindi bisobanuro bikwiye guhabwa agaciro muri iki kibazo.

Biragaragara ko uyu muryango washatse kuzana ibyo ku meza y’ibiganiro mbere y’uruzinduko rwa Blinken. Kugeza ubu biragaragara nk’aho hari amayeri yo kwiyambura inshingano ku byerekeye izi mvururu zikegekwa ku Rwanda.

Biraboneka neza ko Akarere k’Ibiyaga Bigari katakiri mu biraje ishinga Amerika muri iki gihe. Byatwaye ubuyobozi bwa Biden umwaka urenga kugira ambasaderi mushya i Kigali kandi bamwe mu bari imbere bashidikanya ku mugaragaro ko uyu muntu adafite ubushobozi buhambaye mu bya diplomasi ku buryo yumva uburemere bw’ibibazo.

Perezida Obama yari afite umuntu w’umuhanga nka Thomas Periell wakurikiranaga akarere hafi buri gihe ngo ahuze ndetse anavugane n’impande zitavuga rumwe. Perezida Trump ahari ntiyigeze yumva u Rwanda cyangwa ibibazo byo muri Kivu. Joe Biden birasa nk’aho we yumva icengezamatwara rya Hollywood ikaba ari yo mpamvu ari kugerageza gufunguza Rusesabagina binyuze mu kohereza umuntu nka Blinken mu Karere.

Mbere yo gufata ibyemezo bikomeye ku kuba ‘intwari ya Hollywood’ muri gereza kubera ibyaha bye na mbere yo kongera umunyu mu by’abagerageza kuyobya uburari ku bibazo by’umutekano muke muri Congo, Guverinoma ya Amerika ikwiye gutekereza kabiri.

U Rwanda rufite ingabo mu bice by’isi aho zikwiriye iryo zina. Rwamye rugendera ku ruhande rwa Amerika ariko iyo myumvire ikwiye guhinduka.

Hamwe no kuba Donald Trump agifite ibitekerezo byo kugaruka kuyobora Amerika, hamwe n’intambara muri Ukraine ikomeje guca ibintu bisa n’aho bidashishikaje Abanyafurika benshi nk’uko Amerika ibitekereza, Blinken ashobora kugwa mu ikosa ryo gutanga amabwiriza.

Icyizere politiki mpuzamahanga ya Amerika ifitiwe mu Karere kirakemangwa kandi usesenguye imiterere y’ibibazo bishobora kuguma gutyo. Niba Abanyamerika nta bushake bafite bwo gukora ibyo, icyababera cyiza ni uguceceka.

Mu gihe u Rwanda rwagabwaho ibitero biturutse impande zitandukanye ruzirwanaho nka Israel na rwo rwitabare. Abanyarwanda ni abantu bashyira mu gaciro kandi buri gihe bahora biteguye kwemera kujya impaka zubaka ariko mu gihe uzababwira ko nta burenganzira bafite bwo kwikingira ntibazabyemera.

Ibyo ni ko bimeze ku Batutsi bo muri RDC: Imyaka 25 irashize hari abagera ku bihumbi 120 muri bo baba muri kiriya gice cy’igihugu. Uyu munsi uwo mubare waragabanutse ugera ku badashyitse ibihumbi 10 bahora biteguye ko ubuzima bwabo bwajya mu kaga.

Impunzi z’Abanye-Congo zishaka gutahuka aho zisaba amasambu n’inzu byabo. Kuri ubu intambara ya M23 izakomera kandi nibatsindwa bazongera kugaruka nyuma y’imyaka runaka.

Mu kurwana intambara ni byiza mbere na mbere kubanza kumenya aho amasasu aturuka, urimo akurasa uwo ari we no kumenya ubwoko bw’amasasu arimo gukoresha n’ibirindiro bye ukamurwanya ushingiye kuri ayo makuru.

Kuri iyi ngingo ubutasi bwakozwe n’abafatanyije na Blinken ni bubi. Ibyo akwiye kubyitaho mbere yo kugira icyo akora.

Umunyamabanga wa Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika ushinzwe ububanyi n’amahanga, Antony Blinken, azasura u Rwanda na Congo

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